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The Top 7 Mobile Marketing Must-Knows

Whether we like it or not, our mobile devices are becoming a bigger and bigger part of our everyday lives. Some studies have even predicted that by 2018 there will be about one billion people on the planet using smartphones.

Marketers should see this as a great opportunity to come up with unique, personalized, and real-time ways to connect and engage with customers.

But what exactly are the must know things about mobile marketing?

Here we’ll highlight some of the most important ones to keep in mind for 2016:

1. There’s More to Mobile Than Phones

Mobile marketing doesn’t just mean reaching people on their smartphones, it encompasses a myriad of different devices and technologies that you should

consider. You need to think about the size of the device, operating system and what kinds of activities people are actually doing on various phones or tablets. For example, according to a recent Forrester study, 66% of smartphone users utilize their devices while in a store, compared to only 9% of tablet users.

2. Basic Marketing Principles Still Apply

Regardless of whether you’re engaging in radio, print, or mobile advertising, the time-held truths of marketing still apply. In the end, it’s all about getting the right message to the right customer at the right time. Operate under the assumption that mobile is the first way that customers experience your brand, and use tools like Google Analytics to learn as much as possible about their location, device, and behavior.

3. Change Is Constant in Mobile Marketing

While it’s always great to have a plan, one of the must-knows of mobile marketing is that your marketing plan should reflect the rate of change in the industry. New devices, apps, and operating systems will come and go, all impacting your mobile marketing efforts in one way or another. Building periodic reviews into your mobile marketing plan will help you assess what changes are taking place and make the appropriate adjustments.

4. Focus on Responsive Design

Having a responsive website means that your web content is always optimized for viewing on a multitude of devices. Aside from ensuring a positive user experience regardless of the device visitors are using, responsive design is important because Google’s latest algorithm change ranks pages by their mobile-friendliness. Those who haven’t made the effort to optimize will be penalized with a lower search ranking.

5. Don’t Rush Into App Development

Developing your own app is often time-consuming and costly, and might not even be necessary depending upon your business. If you can achieve the functionality you’re looking for with your website, why spend the time and effort of app development? The key to this working is to understand what your visitors most need from your business (hours, location, phone number, promotions, etc.) and deliver that to them on your recently optimized, responsive website.

6. Video Is Trending

Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter have seamlessly integrated easy to watch video content into their mobile experience. Using video to advertise on mobile is still in it’s infancy, but it’s one of the fastest growing areas. A recent Google study suggests that people who view videos on their phones are 1.4 times as likely to watch ads as those who view videos on desktop computers or televisions. Smartphone viewers are also 1.8 times more likely to share videos than those on personal computers.

7. Listen to Your Customers

While you may be eager to get the word out to your subscribers via mobile, keep in mind that mobile is a very personal form of communication. A “batch and blast” approach is likely to yield negative results, so it’s important to listen to your customers and read their “digital body language” in order to communicate the right message at the right time. A recent PWC survey found that most users indicate that they approve of a more conversational approach to mobile advertising, rather than one that is impersonal.

By keeping these must-know mobile marketing trends in mind when formulating your mobile strategy, you’ll be able to attract more customers and engage them long-term. Mobile marketing is constantly evolving, and by staying abreast of new techniques and technologies, you’ll be able to successfully leverage mobile as a key part of building your brand.

Can you think of any other mobile marketing must-knows? If so, feel free to share them below in the comments.

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Houston Small Business Marketing Tips and Tricks…from the Pros!

As a Houston small business owner, you’re always looking for ways to get the word out about your products or services. Marketing budgets are tighter than ever these days, and you need as much bang from your marketing buck as possible.

Odds are that you’re not alone. Many Houston small businesses are now striving to get an edge over the competition and adjust to the city’s growing population and changing demographics. The effectiveness of marketing and brand recognition can often make or break an entire business.

So what exactly can you do to stay ahead of the marketing curve? Here are six small business marketing tips from the pros that you can start using today to make a significant impact both now and into the future:

1. Use Automation & Technology

Automation is great because it takes a lot of the manual work out of your marketing efforts. Many platforms now allow you to create emails and marketing that are sent out once triggered by a specific action from a prospect. Also make sure to leverage analytic tools to monitor web visitors and social media automation services, like SocialSync, to autonomously post updates. In fact, many experts believe that the future of small business lies in automation, not just for marketing but HR, payroll, and inventory management. By having a solid technology strategy and automating as much as possible, you’ll be able to focus only on the most important aspects of your business.

2. Understand Your Audience

Marketing is a conversation, and before you start talking to someone you should know everything you can about them. As a business owner, do you know who exactly you’re targeting with your marketing? Have you done any market research or surveying to determine not just who your market is, but what their motivations are? You can leverage some of the following strategies to better understand and define your target audience: online analytic tools, database marketing, and product analysis.

3. Utilize Traditional Networking

There’s still nothing like face-to-face interaction when it comes to making a lasting impression. Networking with other Houston small businesses can pay dividends in the long run, as referrals and respect in the business community are great forms of marketing themselves. In addition, by networking with other business owners you’ll be able to learn from one another, swap ideas and figure out what’s working and what’s not as it relates to your marketing. Here are some astounding statistics that illustrate the power of face-to-face networking:

  • 84% of business people said they actually prefer face-to-face meetings
  • 74% said they were influenced by looks and a handshake
  • 77% said they prefer in-person conferences because they can read body language
  • 95% said face-to-face was essential for long-term relationships

4. Leverage Real-Time and Social Media

In today’s fast-paced digital landscape, new stories and topics are trending every day and can sometimes change dramatically by the hour or minute. If the topic makes sense as it relates to your business, go ahead and inject yourself into the conversation. You can build on this to use social media as a brand-building tool for your business. Answering questions, providing customer service, and engaging individual customers will make a huge difference in your social media marketing efforts. One caveat: be careful which topics or events you choose, as you don’t want to come across as insensitive. You’ll want to shelve any potentially risque humor, or anything that could be deemed offensive or inappropriate.

5. Target Your Marketing

As a small business owner, not targeting your marketing is something that you can’t afford. By understanding your audience and specifically targeting different segments, your marketing efforts will deliver a much higher ROI. You’ll also be targeting individuals that will be much more responsive to what you have to say, and therefore receive better feedback. If you’re unclear about your target market, you can start by identifying and analyzing your existing customer base. First, start with general traits such as gender and age, then drill down to find more specific commonalities and motivations.

6. Optimize Your Website for Mobile Users

Not just some, but all business need to be thinking about the mobile user. Google’s latest algorithm update now penalizes websites that are not optimized for mobile use, making it something you literally can’t afford not to do. In case you don’t believe us, check out these statistics from Smart Insights:

  • More than 20% of Google searches are performed on a mobile device.
  • In the United States, 25% of internet users only access the internet on a mobile device.
  • 61% of people have a better opinion of brands when they offer a positive mobile experience.
  • 25.85% of all emails are opened on mobile phones, and 10.16% are opened on tablets.

If you feel like your marketing efforts are stuck in the stone age, use a few of these small business marketing tips from the pros. Small businesses are constantly evolving and by putting some of these tools and tips into action you’ll be able to realize both short and long term results.

Do you have any marketing tips to share that might help other Houston small businesses? Make sure to let everyone know in the comments!

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How to Attract New Customers When Marketing in Houston

Are you wondering how to attract new customers to your business in Houston? Maybe there’s a secret that other businesses know about that you don’t?

Don’t worry, marketing to Houstonians isn’t necessarily rocket science. All it takes is the ability to assess what you’re doing now, and make the changes that are necessary.

When you’re done reading this blog, you’ll have some ideas for how to attract new customers to your business in a few easy steps. Let’s get started:

1. Start by Understanding Your Targets

Developing accurate personas of your target audience will give you a good start as to who you should be marketing to. This should go hand-in-hand with specific big-picture, strategic goals for attracting new customers. Some good examples of goals are: increasing membership signups, raising overall revenue, or developing a greater presence on social media. Your goals should be Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Time-Based (SMART).

2. Understand Your Customer’s Journey

Determine the steps your consumers requires that you take time to find the answers to their questions, and make that fit seamlessly with how you market to them. Ask yourself – at which stages different aspects of your marketing plan will ultimately reach them?

A visual map can be very helpful in this process, allowing you to see what different avenues customers often take towards making a purchase. The benefit is that you’ll be able to determine which pathways are potentially most profitable, and fill in any gaps you might have along various legs of the journey.

3. Hire Experienced Staff Members

As a Houston business owner, the reality is that you just can’t handle everything yourself. You’ll need to hire experienced staff members and leverage the expertise of these trained professionals. Ideally you’ll want to identify them as early in the process as possible, even if they have to do more than one job to begin with. Here are some of the skills that you should probably consider must-haves if you want to attract a significant amount of new customers with your new team:

  • Strong written skills
  • Graphic design
  • A basic understand of web development
  • Lead generation
  • Social media management
  • Email marketing.
  • Digital marketing (Heads up – three of the hottest skills in demand for 2015 have been SEO, pay-per-click (PPC), and content management.)

4. Evaluate Your Web Presence

Do you exactly how well your website is performing?

Have you recently updated your site to something responsive or, at the very least, mobile-friendly?

How does your site appear to viewers?

Is it dated, unattractive, or hard to navigate?

Determine the functionality of your website. How easy is it for visitors to find the information they’re looking for?

Are you looking at page views to see which content is being looked at most? By doing this, you can position that information better on your site to serve the viewers needs. It’s also a good idea to take a look at your competitor’s websites for ideas and inspiration. Think about what they’re doing right, or better yet, what they’re doing wrong, and use this as a means of improvement.

5. Utilize Marketing Automation & Email Workflows

Today’s marketing automation and email tools enable you to create content that targets specific points in your customer’s path to purchase. This keeps customers engaged and allows marketers to personalize their messages, further strengthening the bond between customers.

More importantly, it allows you to scale your marketing efforts by reaching more people at once without your email blasts seeming like spam. Outline the different steps in the path of your buyer’s journey, and automate each step with the appropriate materials and responses.

6. Create Content for Your Audience

The goal here is to be useful and provide value to your target audience. Blogs, white papers and case studies tailored to their common needs can be very powerful in terms of connecting with potential customers.

Creating content with a strong keyword strategy also has the benefit of improving your ranking in search results. Identify some key areas of interest for your audience and develop different types of content that speaks to them and that they would find useful.

Remember, people like to get their information in a number of different ways. Utilize eBooks, case studies, video content, and infographics to serve your prospect’s needs. In fact only 30% of companies say they are effective at content marketing, so this would make a great way to get a leg up on the competition.

So –  you’ve learned some basics of how to attract new customers in Houston to your business. Sometimes success starts with small, basic steps. With a bit of persistence and ingenuity you’ll be attracting more customers than you can handle.

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How to Turn Your Houston Marketing Frown Upside Down!

Are the results of your marketing efforts getting you down? The world of marketing is always in flux, and in Houston it isn’t any different. In this post, we’ll give you four tips to get you to the top of your Houston marketing game in no time flat. Let’s begin!

Ensure Your Site Is Mobile-Friendly

When Mobilegeddon rolled out in April 2015, a lot of businesses weren’t ready for it, especially the small ones. However, it took some time for the effects to really be visible. After six months, there was some solid data to consider, and for the non-mobile-friendly, the numbers weren’t good.

On average, they fell five ranks on search engine results pages (SERPs), which would be painful enough for businesses already ranking well. For businesses that barely made the first page, it’s disastrous. In fact, 77% of mobile searches occur where desktops are likely available, such as home and work.

People prefer to use their mobile devices, and when nearly 70% of clicks go to the top three returns and more than 50% of searches are performed from a mobile device, you can’t afford to not be mobile-friendly. We mean that quite literally — you could be losing thousands of dollars monthly.

How to Do It:

The task of re-designing your site may seem daunting, but ultimately it’s worth your trouble. Google recognizes three different mobile formats: responsive, dynamic (sometimes called adaptive), and mobile-specific redirect sites (e.g., m.YourWebsite.com).

While a separate mobile site seems like the quick and easy path, it isn’t going to be a long term solution. Why? Because more and more devices are coming in a wide variety of sizes. A dynamic design will offer the same content on the same URL, but use different HTML sets based on what meta data it reads from the browser you’re using. It’s effective, but harder to index by Google-bots; it also requires you to spend more time and money individually designing an appropriate number of HTML options.

We strongly recommend the responsive design — it has the ability, within one set of HTML to adjust to any screen or browser size as it’s encountered (i.e., respond to device parameters). That makes it very easy to index, and much cheaper to pay for.

How do you know if you’re mobile-friendly? And if you’re not, how do you fix it? There’s a few aspects you should be looking at.

  • First, use Google’s Mobile Friendly Test and Mobile Usability Tool to see what changes Google says need to be made.
  • Next, check the options provided by your content managing system (e.g., WordPress, Joomla, SquareSpace); Google has tips about some of these as well.
  • Then make sure you don’t use Flash, mismatched fonts, or non-optimized images (i.e., extremely large file size).
  • If you already have a mobile site, ensure all of your redirects go to the proper URL’s or you could inadvertently downrank yourself.

However, in most cases, you’ll probably be coordinating with a web designer to redevelop your site or make any needed changes. However, if you are handling your own website, here’s a few tools to help you on your way:

Ensure Your Team Is Thinking Mobile First

Unfortunately, even when your site is mobile friendly, your marketing creative may not be. Whether you’re the one that handles marketing or if you have a team that develops it, you need to ensure that your marketing is designed with mobile in mind first and foremost. Here’s a few reasons why:

How to Do It:

Marketing that isn’t targeting mobile audiences first is missing out on a larger and larger chunk of your audience. So what does creative need to concern itself with?

First and foremost, how easy is the marketing to absorb on a mobile device? Marketing also needs to be designed to work within a responsive platform and adhere to some of the same guidelines (e.g., image file sizes) that your website does.

Secondly, you need to determine what kind of marketing is going to be most effective for reaching your audience. Banner ads must be effective and native advertising is not only on the rise, it’s successful.

Most importantly, you need to have your marketing in the right place at the right time.

Ensure You’re Effectively Targeting Your Audience

Unfortunately, this seems to remain a difficult thing for marketers. According to one study, more than half of the respondents found it difficult to determine proper target personas. You may think it’s unnecessary, considering Nielsen reports roughly 59% of ad impressions reach their audience.

There’s a key problem there though — it’s measuring ad impressions instead of what’s actually important: conversions. Personalizing calls-to-action will boost conversions by 42%, while personalizing the shopping experience across all marketing and media channels boosts conversions by 40%.

How to Do It:

Reevaluate your audience by examining what your products and services fulfill in terms of customer needs. Use this to focus your segmentation.

Really break down your data, all of your data across all channels, and filter that to determine which segments are reached most effectively, on what channels, for what budget.

Take full advantage of listening tools and targeting software, especially if you can make targeting in real time.

Lastly, you should always validate your targeting and retargeting. It ensures you really are hitting your targeted segment.

Ensure You’re A/B Testing for Effectiveness

The fact is, A/B testing can take time, but that time is offset by the advantages it offers you. This tool helps you sharpen the focus and personalization of your targeting. Why? Because you’re constantly testing variations for success. This will allow you to determine something as simple as whether or not one layout reaches one segment better than another, while it fails with a different segment entirely. Similarly, you can test channels, and how successful one choice is for reaching a targeted segment per channel. Marketing isn’t one size fits all, and there’s only one way to figure out what’s going to work for your needs.

How to Do It:

First, make sure you’re evaluating the right things the right way. Don’t stick to a format because it’s the way your company has always done it. It may be time to overhaul everything, whether it’s your website or your marketing.

If you’re working on your marketing, take advantage of the Google Website Optimizer. In fact, Google AdSense has a great method for A/B testing.

Furthermore, review the offerings from Optimizely and VWO. Be sure you select an A/B testing method that suits your business needs most effectively. Also, review case studies from businesses that are similar to yours, and from businesses that are just as successful.

Create a plan for A/B testing content and marketing, and apply it either immediately or on future projects. The results will help shape your efforts toward higher success.

If you put these four aspects into motion, you should see an uptick in the success of your marketing efforts. Of course, at Cox Media Group Houston, we’ve got the experts and tools you need to take your marketing to the next level. Whether you need a hand putting these steps into place or you’re looking for more advanced advice, we’re ready to help.

Responsive Website

 

Changing Your Attitude Creates A Productive Team and Drives Revenue

It’s time to be more aware of attitudes in the workplace…especially yours. As a business owner or team leader, your attitude is what sets the tone for your work environment and plays a huge role in building a healthy work culture, which in turn affects the dedication and productivity of the employees under you.

While most people don’t pay much attention to their attitude until someone brings attention to it, as a leader, you need to be consciously aware of the effect you’re having on your team.

The point is this: You need to consciously control your attitude in the workplace. Why? The simple answer is employee engagement. To break that down, here are some statistics regarding what employee engagement does for your ROI:

  • Turnover reduced by 65% low-turnover companies and 25% for high-turnover companies
  • Absenteeism reduced by 37%
  • Shrinkage reduced by 28%
  • Safety incidents and quality defects reduced by 48% and 41% respectively
  • Earnings per share performance increased by 147%

If you haven’t been actively aware of your attitude and your employee’s reaction to it, then you may not realize how changing your attitude can make your team more productive either. Making an active effort to have a positive attitude will ultimately influence your team to be more positive, and more engaged. It boosts morale, increases productivity, as well as a host of other benefits, including increased revenue.

Tips for Attitude Improvement

Your attitude is often instinctual, so learning how to craft your attitude to meet your needs can be difficult. The following list of tips will help you become aware of, and better express, positivity in the workplace.

Focus on a Positive Vision of the Future

Your mental picture for the future can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. When you’re overtly negative, your team’s outlook is more likely to be negative and you’re more likely to achieve poor results. By having a positive vision of the future, you’re more likely to reach your goals.

Focus on Goals for You and Your Team and Daily Check-Ins

You may be tempted to believe that not pressing your employees for project statuses is a friendlier approach to leadership. Statistically, that’s not the case. Engagement and productivity are more likely the more involved you are. Specifically, according to Gallup, the rates of engagement are: 38% when managers help staff set goals, 28% when managers hold staff accountable, and 31% when managers are approachable for questions and problems.

Focus on Positive Self Talk

It’s important to understand that this does not mean putting on blinders and ignoring negative situations and interactions, and it doesn’t mean becoming obsessively positive in a way that can’t acknowledge negativity at all.Positive self talk refers to your inner monologue, the part of your stream of consciousness that handles how you view yourself and others. Retraining your inner monologue to view things first, logically, and then, positively can result in lower stress, better mental health, and less risk for depression. Interestingly, this often involves thinking at yourself in the third person.

Focus on Positive People

Don’t underestimate the power of one person’s energy to affect another’s. Just consider the last time you were around someone who was constantly negative; exhausting, isn’t it? There’s two sides to this tip: first, positive people aren’t and don’t need to be perfect people; second, at some point you need to make a determination about whether or not you need to let an employee, with a toxic effect on company culture, go.

Focus on Listening to Others

There’s fewer ways to understand your team than to actually listen to them, that is, to actively listen to them. Understand their concerns, their needs, their goals, and you can invest in them so as to help them invest in your company.

Focus on Humor, Especially About Yourself

There’s something to be said for the importance of taking things seriously, of course, but there is such a thing as being too serious as well as a need for levity. Worry is, in fact, counterproductive, and you’ve only got so much time in your workday. Taking yourself, your work, and your team too seriously lead to higher levels of stress, derision, and hostility.

Focus on Responsibility Not Function

Limiting yourself or allowing your team members to limit themselves with the phrase “not my job” is a fast track to limiting how much you or they invest in a particular project, or even your company. If the ball gets dropped, the sense of responsibility will ensure the team picks it back up. Combined with check-ins, and you’ll also begin to identify top performing employees as well as toxic ones.

Focus on Results

You could rephrase this tip to say focus on your team, or even focus on your business. The point here, is that when you’re at work, you’re at work. Outside emotional influences and negativity can lead to a poor attitude at work, which, in turn, ends up with poor results. This isn’t to say you should repress your emotional needs in an unhealthy way, rather you should focus them as much as possible on maintaining positivity in the workplace.

Effects of the Positive Workplace

Remember, a positive attitude is contagious. As the saying goes, “a dead battery can’t charge a dead battery.” You have to be the force for positive change, and as a leader, your workplace will invariably see an atmosphere changed for the better.

What these changes can do for you:

  • Inspire helpfulness in others. Few want to help someone with a bad attitude!
  • Improve energy levels, enthusiasm, and performance momentum
  • Make way for better decision making, problem solving, and creativity
  • Enable risk taking and increase the resilience in the face of a challenge
  • Lowers stress and engender better working relationships.
  • Validate work efforts even in the face of project hangups and bad news
  • Promotes friendly competition as a force of motivation
  • Promotes a sense of teamwork
  • Improves productivity and willingness to take extra steps (e.g., overtime) for success
  • Increases time spent productively while decreasing time wasted
  • Supports proactive approaches to risk prevention
  • Improves morale overall

There are more ways to create a positive atmosphere in the workplace, especially when trying to inspire an innovative company culture. Employees that feel they have more input, and are able to have a real influence toward the company’s success, are more likely to be invested in the company for the long term.

It should be a little easier to determine how changing your attitude can make your team more productive. Remember, no two businesses and no two people are the same. With a positive attitude and a willingness to listen, you can guide your people to a more prosperous future.

SMB Guide to Effective Marketing Strategy

 

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Houston Online Marketing Trends to Plan for in 2016

When it comes to digital marketing, it’s not enough to follow the herd. Amidst fierce competition, brands, now more than ever, must really stay on the cutting edge of marketing techniques in order to maintain relevance with their audiences. In this post we’ll take a look at some online marketing trends to plan for in 2016 to help your business’ marketing soar into the new year.

More and More Focus on Mobile!

Mobile devices have been an important target to marketers and that trend shows no sign of slowing down in 2016. At present, 64% of all adults in the US own a smartphone, and by 2016, worldwide smartphone ownership is expected to exceed two billion people. That’s over a quarter of everyone on earth! Can your marketing afford to lose such a massive audience?

In addition to smartphones continuing to dominate in 2016, expect to see increased ownership of other mobile devices. By the end of next year, 1 in 10 people in the US will be tablet owners, and wearable tech ownership — like smart watches — will have tripled. Brands that want to thrive would be well served to capitalize on the popularity of these devices by tailoring their marketing campaigns to accommodate a variety of mobile screens and platforms.

Focus on New and Niche Social Platforms

Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn may have the market cornered when it comes to social media, but as a marketer you ultimately need to be where your audience is. With these “old-guard” networking sites mostly saturated — over a quarter of teens have recently left Facebook, for example — 2016 is the time for brands to broaden their social horizons by reaching out to their audiences on sites like Instagram, Snapchat, and Periscope.

While Instagram is owned by Facebook, and Periscope by Twitter, these sites boast an entirely different experience than their parent sites. Fresh and fun, sites like Instagram and Periscope offer instant, real-time connections. And their emphasis on photos and videos makes them great for brands too! Just take a look at how users are engaging with brands through Snapchat’s new, innovative “Discover” section.

Predictive Analytics

Think of predictive analytics like market segmentation on steroids. Predictive analytics looks at the past behavior of consumers and analyzes it for patterns that can predict future actions. Not only can it let marketers nurture their audience with personalized messages, it can help to predict the outcomes of proposed marketing campaigns, letting brands minimize risks and maximize ROI.

Video Ads Will Dominate

Whether it’s pre-roll, post-roll, or native, advertising in digital video will continue to grow this year,  doubling in ad spends compared to three years ago ($2.8 billion in 2013 vs. $5 billion in 2016). While impressive, these numbers are hardly surprising, given how popular streaming video is for consumers and what a powerfully engaging medium it is for marketers.

App Indexing Will Lead to an Explosion of Apps

Recent moves by Google to enable better indexing of Android apps in its Play store is as important for businesses looking to get their apps noticed as SEO is for content marketers. Rather than apps being organized very generally (games, utilities, etc.) new indexing algorithms let users search for just the right app to suit their needs, in much the same way they would a website.

If your business has an app, or is considering releasing one, it’s easy to get it indexed, and doing so can provide a helpful push in getting your app noticed.

Digital Assistants Will Lead to a New Kind of Optimization

Digital assistants such as Apple’s Siri, or Microsoft’s Cortana have changed the way users interact with the web. Businesses need to optimize their web presence in order make their information easily accessible to digital assistants so that when a user says something like “Siri, show me hardware stores in Houston,” your store comes up.

When predicting trends, it’s hard not to feel like some of them are more science fiction than reality. But while things like wearable tech, and complex algorithms might seem “far-out” right now, it’s important to remember how far technology has advanced in the past decade. As tech advances, it’s important for digital marketers to keep up. In the vastness of the world wide web, failing to do so is the quickest route to obsolescence.